Practical Analysis Antibiotics Use for Covid 19 Patients

Puri Safitri Hanum, Ni Made Eravikania Putri Darmawan, Didik Hasmono

Abstract


To evaluate the use of antibiotics and their effectiveness in COVID-19 patients including PCR, body temperature, SaO2, chest X-ray, respiratory rate, leukocytes, CRP, and LOS of COVID-19 patients at Bhayangkara HS Samsoeri Hospital Mertojoso Surabaya. This study is an observational study with a retrospective method in the period June 2020 to February 2021. Data were collected from Medical Records of COVID-19 patients who achieved antibiotic therapy, with standard therapy: antiviral (mild to moderate: Favipiravir-Ritonavir and severe: Remdesivir), antibiotics, vitamins, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, symptomatic and concomitant therapy. The study showed that 37% (25 patients) were female and 67% (41 patients) were male with the highest age range between 30-39 years. Most of the patients were hospitalized for 10-14 days and the longest hospitalization period was 40-44 days. In this study patients with mild cases were the most cases with a total of 36 patients (54%). The results of the analysis based on the 2020 Third Edition of the 2020 COVID-19 Handling Guidelines, the Bhayangkara Hospital Antibiogram data, clinical conditions and laboratory tests occurred in 66 patients (100%). Rational use of antibiotics in accordance with the COVID-19 Management Guidelines 3rd Edition and data from Bhayangkara Hospital antibiogram of 100% and antibiotics can help the healing process of COVID-19 patients proven by negative PCR results (91%), increased body temperature (100%), SaO2 (100%), chest x-ray (45%), respiratory rate (92%), leukocytes (77%), CRP (41%), and LOS.


Keywords


practical analysis; antibiotics; covid 19 patients

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ekbatani, M. S. et al. 2020. Atypical and novel presentations of Coronavirus Disease 2019: a case series of three children, British Journal of Biomedical Science, pp. 1–6.

Grace, C. 2020 ‘Manifestasi Klinis dan Perjalanan Penyakit pada Pasien Covid-19’, Majority, 9, pp. 49–55.

Kemenkes RI, 2011. Pedoman Pelayana Kefarmasian Untuk Terapi Antibiotik. Jakarta: s.n

Madandola, D.T.N. et.al. (2021). A Year Emergence of Covid-19 in Nigeria and Its Consequences on Educational Development of Kwara State. Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal Vol 3 (2): 98-106.

Marciniec, K. et al. 2020. Ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin could interact with SARS-CoV-2 protease: preliminary in silico analysis, Pharmacological Reports, Vol. 72, No. 6, pp. 1553–1561.

Modeawi, M.N. (2020). Congolese Medicinal Plant biodiversity as Source of AntiCOVID- 19 Compounds: Economic goods in the light of Comparative Advantages Theory of Ricardo. Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal Vol 2 (3): 298-309.

Menteri Kesehatan RI, 2011. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 2406/MENKES/PER/XII/2011 tentang Pedoman Umum Penggunaan Antibiotik. Jakarta: Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia

Menteri Kesehatan RI. 2020. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor HK.01.07/MenKes/413/2020 Tentang Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19). Jakarta: menteri Kesehatan RI

Min JY, Jang YJ. 2012. Macrolide therapy in respiratory viral infections. Mediators Inflamm 2012: 649570.

MS Ekbatani , SA Hassani , L Tahernia , B Yaghmaei , S Mahmoudi , A Navaeian , M Rostamyan , F Zamani & S Mamishi. 2020. Atypical and novel presentations of Coronavirus Disease 2019: a case series of three children, British Journal of Biomedical Science.

Nestler, M., Godbout, E., Lee, K., Kim, J., Noda, A., Taylor, P., Stevens, M. 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on pneumonia-focused antibiotic use at an academic medical center. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, pp. 1-3.

Oi I et al. 2019. Cefepime vs. meropenem for moderate-to-severe pneumonia in patients at risk for aspiration: An open-label, randomized study. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, Vol. 26, No.2, pp.181-187.

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI), Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kardiovaskular Indonesia (PERKI), Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam Indonesia (PAPDI), Perhimpunan Dokter Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif Indonesia (PERDATIN), Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (IDAI). 2020. Protokol Tatalaksana COVID-19. Jakarta

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI). 2003. Pneumonia Komuniti: Diagnosis & Penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Jakarta

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI). 2003. Pneumonia Nosokomial: Pedoman Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Jakarta.

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI). 2020. Pneumonia COVID-19: Diagnosis & Penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Jakarta

Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, et al., 2017. Oxidative stress: Harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017: 8416763

Regunath H, Oba Y. 2020. Community-Acquired Pneumonia [Updated 2020 Aug 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing.

Ren L-L, Wang Y-M, Wu Z-Q, Xiang Z-C, Guo L, Xy T, et al. 2020 Identfication of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. 2020. The Epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020; published online March 3.

Russell B, Moss C, George G, Santaolalla A, Cope A, et al. 2020, Associations between immune-suppressive and stimulating drugs and novel COVID-19- a systematic review of current evidence. Ecancermedicalscience, Vol. 14, p. 1022.

Samir, D. 2020. Oxidative Stress Associated with SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) Increases the Severity of the Lung Disease - A Systematic Review’, Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1–6.

Sheu et al. 2020. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Various Cefoperazone/Sulbactam Products. Antibiotics, Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 77.

Sultana, J., Cutroneo, P.M., Crisafulli, S. et al. Azithromycin in COVID-19 Patients: Pharmacological Mechanism, Clinical Evidence and Prescribing Guidelines. Drug Saf, Vol. 43, p. 691–698.

Susilom Adityo, et al. 2020. Coronavirus Disease 2019: Tinjauan Literatur Terkini. Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia., Vol. 7 No. 1, p. 45-67.

Yates, S., Newman, S., Oshry, L.J., Glassman R., Leone A., Reichel E. 2020. Doxycyline treatment of high-risk COVID-19-positive patients with comorbid pulmonary disease. Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Diseases, Vol. 14, p. 1-5.

The Amrin Study Group. Antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control; a self-assessment program for Indonesian hospitals. Directorate General of Medicine Care, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. 2005.

Thevarajan I, Nguyen THO, Koutsakos M, Druce J, Carly L, van de Sandt CE, et al. 2020. Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Nat Med 2020.

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook M, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. 2020.Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SRAS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med.

Wang Y, Xu J, Meng Y, Adcock IM, Yao X., 2018. Role of inflammatory cells in airway remodelling in CPOD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 13., p: 3341-3348

World Health Organization. Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection

Wu, P. et al. 2020. Real-time tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China. Eurosurveillance, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 1–6

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zang C, et al. 2020. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med.

Zhang G, Hu C, Luo L, Fang F, Chen Y, Li J, Peng Z, Pan H. 2020. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 221 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Journal of Clinical Virology 127: 104364.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v3i4.2636

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 3 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 

 

Statcounter for Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx Journal)