Causal Relationship Among Professional Learning Communities and Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Study Among Teaching Staff in Betong, Sarawak

Ying-Leh Ling, Wei-Shang Wang


The Professional Learning Community (PLC) serves as a platform where teaching staff collaboratively create learning opportunities to enhance the overall teaching and learning process in classrooms. In the developing world, educators play a crucial role in driving development through education, making PLCs particularly relevant. By participating in PLCs, teachers can boost their self-esteem, gain insights into effective teaching methods, and acquire valuable knowledge to improve student performance. Additionally, this program fosters a cooperative culture among teachers and supports continuous lifelong learning. PLC's benefits have garnered international recognition, including in Malaysia. To delve into the perceptions of teachers in rural primary schools in Betong, Sarawak, regarding the implementation of PLC, this study was conducted. Furthermore, the research aimed to assess the level of teacher self-efficacy and explore the potential relationship between the implementation of PLC and teacher self-efficacy. Employing quantitative methods, the study collected responses from 150 rural primary school teachers based on five selected national primary schools, using a well-structured questionnaire to gather data. The study's findings indicate that a significant number of teaching staff possess knowledge about the implementation of PLC and express optimism about the way it is conducted in their respective schools. Teachers are reported to be highly effective in managing classrooms, engaging students during the teaching and learning process, and employing quality teaching strategies. Moreover, the study reveals a noteworthy relationship between various dimensions of PLC and teacher self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are both theoretical and practical. For instance, it underscores the importance of fostering PLCs in schools to empower teachers, improve their confidence in their abilities, and promote a conducive learning environment. By nurturing a culture of collaborative learning and professional development, educational institutions can elevate teaching standards, ultimately leading to enhanced student outcomes. The study's insights can guide policymakers and school administrators in designing and implementing effective PLC initiatives, ensuring they have a positive impact on both teachers and students


professional learning communities; teaching self-efficacy; teaching

Full Text:



Alibakhshi, G., Nikdel, F., & Labbafi, A. (2020). Exploring the consequences of teachers’ self-efficacy: A case of teachers of English as a foreign language. Asiam-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 5(23), 1-19. doi: 10.1186/s40862-020-00102-1

Aziah Ismail, Loh, H. Y., & Abdul Ghani Kanesan Abdullah. (2015). Komuniti pelajaran profesional dan efikasi kendiri guru sekolah menengah di Pulau Pinang. Jurnal Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 2(1), 1-12.

Babaei, M. & Abednia, A. (2016). Reflective teaching and self-efficacy beliefs: exploring relationships in the context of teaching EFL in Iran. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(9), 1-27.

Barni, D., Danioni, F., & Benevene, P. (2019). Teachers’ self-efficacy: The role of personal values and motivations for teaching. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1645. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01645

Calik, M. (2013). Effect of technology-embedded scientific inquiry on senior science student teachers’ self-efficacy. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 9(3), 223-232. doi:10.12973/eurasia.2013.931a.

Chua, W. C., Thien, L. M., Lim, S. Y., Tan, C. S. & Guan, T. E. (2020). Unveiling the practices and challenges of the professional learning community in a Malaysian Chinese secondary school. Sage Open, 10(2). doi:10.1177/2158244020925516

Creswell, J. W. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach (5th ed.). California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Gilliam, D. G. (2020). Correlation between teacher efficacy and effective professional learning communities. Online theses and dissertations, 625.

Hawati Abdul Hamid & Jarud Romadan Khalidi. (2020). Covid-19 and Unequal Learning. Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Research Institute.

Hord, S. M. (1996). School professional staff as learning community questionnaire. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Hord, S., & Sommers, W. (2008). Leading professional learning communities: Voices from research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kamarudin Ismail, Rosnah Ishak, & Siti Hajar Kamaruddin. (2020). Professional learning communities in Malaysian schools: A contemporary literature review. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1535-1541.

Leavy, P. (2017). Quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. New York: The Guilford Press.

Ling, K. H. (2018). Measurement of teacher sense of efficacy: A study with Myanmar in-service teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 9(35), 39-48.

Mehnaz Ansari, Waseem Ahmad Khan Rasheed Ahmad & Mohd. Suhail. (2012). Virtual professional learning communities for teachers’ enrichment. International Journal of Information Science and Education, 2(1). 1-11.

Ministry of Education. (2013). Malaysia education blueprint 2013-2025 (Preschool to post-secondary education). Putrajaya.

Ministry of Education. (2019). Statistik bilangan sekolah, murid dan guru. Ministry of Education Malaysia. Retrieved from

Pooja, B. (2019). Types of sampling in research. Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences, 5(3), 157-162.

Prince, C. E. (2018). The effect of professional learning communities on perceived teacher self-efficacy (University of North Texas). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 11003998)

Romeo, S. (2010). An exploratory study of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and professional learning community (University of Kansas). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3434594)

Salmi Abdul Patah & Yusof Boon. (2021). Issues and trends of teacher professionalism for Malaysian education. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science, 11(4), 248-254.

Stegall, D. A. (2011). Professional learning communities and teacher efficacy: A correlational study. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

Sussela, M. & Vasundhara, V. (2012). Teacher evaluation practices in Malaysian primary schools: issues and challenges, 13(3), 449-456.

Sweigart, D. P. (2012). Professional learning communities, self-efficacy, and collaborative learning in elementary school (Doctoral dissertations). The University of Southern Mississippi.

Taylor, P. L. (2021). The impact of PLCs on teacher self-efficacy (Doctoral dissertations). The University of South Carolina.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.

Voelkel, R. H. & Chrispeels, J. H. (2017). Understanding the link between professional learning communities and teacher collective efficacy. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 28(4), 505-526.

Wong, N. (2021, August 5). Frustrated teachers share difficulties with online teaching. Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved from

Zheng, X., Yin, H. B. & Liu, Y. (2020): Are professional learning communities beneficial for teachers? A multilevel analysis of teacher self-efficacy and commitment in China. School Effectiveness and School Improvement. doi. 10.1080/09243453.2020.180848



Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1 times
PDF - 1 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License